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Spall, M. A., 2020: Potential vorticity dynamics of the Arctic halocline, J. Phys. Oceanogr.50, 2491-2506. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-20-0056.1

Spall, M. A., and D. Nieves, 2020: Wind-forced variability of the remote Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,50, 455-469. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-0190.1

Ypma, S. L., M. A. Spall, E. Lambert, S. Georgiou, J. D. Pietrzak, C. A. Katsman, 2020: The contrasting dynamics of the buoyancy-forced Lofoten and Greenland basins. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 1227–1244, DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-2019-0280.1

Kipp, L. E., M. A. Spall, R. S. Pickart, D. C. Kadko, W. S. Moore, J. S. Dabrowski, M. A. Charette, 2020: Observational andmodeling evidence of seasonal trends in sediment-derived material inputs to the Chukchi Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 125, DOI:10.1029/2019JC016007.


Johnson, H. L., P. Cessi, D. P. Marshall, F. Schloesser, M. A. Spall, 2019: Recent contributions of theory to our understanding of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 124, 5376-5399. DOI:10.1029/2019JC015330

Renfrew, I. A., and co-authors, 2019: The Iceland Greenland Sea Project. BAMS, 1795-1817, DOI:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0217.1

Spall, M. A., 2019: Dynamics and thermodynamics of the mean Transpolar Drift and ice thickness in the Arctic OceanJ. Climate, 32, 8449-8463. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0252.1

Huang, J., R. S. Pickart, H. Valdimarsson, P. Lin, M. A. Spall, F. Xu, 2019: Structure and variability of the North Icelandic Jet from two years of mooring data. J. Geophys. Res., 124, DOI:10.1029/2019JC015134

Spall, M. A., R. S. Pickart, P. Lin, W.-J. von Appen, D. Mastropole, H. Valdimarsson, T. W. N. Haine, M. Almansi, 2019: Frontogenesis and variability in Denmark Strait and its influence on overflow waterJ. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 1889-1904. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-19-0053.1

Li, M., R. S. Pickart, M. A. Spall, T. J. Weingartner, P. Lin, G. W. K. Moore, Y. Qi, 2019: Circulation of the Chukchi Sea shelfbreak and slope from moored timeseries. Prog. Oceanogr., 172, 14-33.


Bringedal, C., T. Eldevik, O. Skagseth, M. A. Spall, S. Osterhus, 2018: Structure and forcing of observed exchanges across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. J. Climate, 31, 9881-9901. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0889.1

Lambert, E., T. Eldevik, M. A. Spall, 2018: On the dynamics and water mass transformation of a boundary current connecting alpha and beta oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,48, 2457-2475. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0186.1

Spall, M. A., R. S. Pickart, M. Li, M. Itoh, P. Lin, T. Kikuchi, and Y. Qi, 2018: Transport of Pacific Water into the Canada Basin and the formation of the Chukchi Slope Current. J. Geophys. Res., 123, 7453-7471. DOI:10.1029/2018/JC013825.

Waldman, R., N. Bruggemann, A. Bosse, M. A. Spall, S. Somot, F. Sevault, 2018: Overturning the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45,

Nieves, D. and M. A. Spall, 2018: Propagation of North Atlantic Deep Water anomalies J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 1831-1848. DOI:10.1175/JPO-D-18-0068.

Jensen, M. F., K. H. Nisancioglu, M. A. Spall, 2018: Large Changes in Sea Ice Triggered by Small Changes in Atlantic Water Temperature, J. Climate, 31,4847-4863. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0802.1

Katsman, C. A., S. S. Drijfhout, H. A. Dijkstra, M. A. Spall,, 2018: Sinking of dense North Atlantic waters in a global ocean model: Locations and controls J. Geophys. Res., 123,

Spall, M. A., J. Pedlosky, 2018: Shelf-Open Ocean exchange forced by wind jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 163-174, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0161.1.

Vage, K., L. Papritz, L. Havik, M. S. Spall, G. W. K. Moore, 2018: Ocean Convection linked to the recent ice edge retreat along east Greenland. Nature Geo., 9,  DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03468-6.


Spall, M. A., R. H. Jackson, F. Straneo, 2017: Katabatic wind-driven exchange in fjords. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 122, 8246-8262,

Liang, X., M. A. Spall, C. Wunsch, 2017: Global ocean vertical velocities from a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 122,8202-8224,

Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, D. J. Torres, K. Våge, H. Valdimarsson, C. Nobre, G. W. K. Moore, S. Jonsson, and D. Mastropole, 2017: The North Icelandic Jet and its relationship to the North Icelandic Irminger Current. J. Mar. Res., 75,605-639.

Spall, M. A., J. Pedlosky, C. Cenedese, 2017: Circulation Induced by Isolated Dense Water Formation over Closed Topographic Contours. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 2251-2265.

Manucharyan, G. E., A. F. Thompson, M. A. Spall, 2017: Eddy-Memory Mode of Multidecadal Variability in Residual-Mean Ocean Circulations with Application to the Beaufort Gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 47, 855-866.


Spall, M. A., 2016: Wind-driven flow over topography. J. Mar. Res., 74, 229-248.

Spall, M. A., and N. Schneider, 2016: Coupled ocean-atmosphere offshore decay scale of cold SST signals along upwelling eastern boundaries. J. Climate., 29, 8317-8331.

Spall, M. A., and L. N. Thomas, 2016: Downfront winds over buoyant coastal plumes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 3139-3154.

Manucharyan, M. A. Spall, and A. F. Thompson, 2016: A theory of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 46, 3263-3278.


Manucharyan, G and M. A. Spall, 2015: Wind-driven freshwater buildup and release in the Beaufort Gyre constrained by mesoscale eddies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL065957.

Pisareva, M. N., R. S. Pickart, M. A. Spall, C. Nobre, D. J. Torres, G. W. K. Moore, and T. E. Witledge, 2015: Flow of Pacific Water in the western Chukchi Sea: Results from the 2009 RUSALCA Expedition. Deep Sea Res. I., 105, 53-73.

Spall, M. A., 2015: Thermally forced transients in the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 2820-2835.

Pedlosky, J., and M. A. Spall, 2015: The interaction of an eastward flowing current and an island: Sub- and supercritical flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 2806-2819.

Yasuda, Y, and M. A. Spall, 2015: Influences of time-dependent precipitation on water mass transformation, heat fluxes, and deep convection in marginal seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 1822-1842.


Spall, M. A., 2014: Some influences of remote topography on western boundary currents. J. Mar. Res., 72, 73-94.

Spall, M. A., R. S. Pickart, E. T. Brugler, G. W. K. Moore, L. Thomas. K. R. Arrigo, 2014: Role of shelfbreak upwelling in the formation of a massive under-ice bloom in the Chukchi Sea. Deep Sea Res. II, 105, 17-29.


Spall, M. A., 2013: On the circulation of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2352-2371.

Vage K. J., R. S. Pickart, M. A. Spall, G.W.K. Moore, H. Valdimarsson, D. J. Torres, S. Y. Erofeev, J. E. Ø. Nilsen, 2013: Revised circulation scheme north of the Denmark Strait. Deep Sea Res., 79, 20-39.

Spall, M. A., 2013: Dense water formation around islands. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 118, 2507-2519.

Wang, J., M. A. Spall, G. R. Flierl, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 2013: Nonlinear radiating instability of a barotropic eastern boundary current. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,, 43,1439-1452.

Spall, M. A., and J. Pedlosky, 2013: Interaction of Ekman layers and islands. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1028-1041.

Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, J. T. Mathis, 2013: Dynamics of upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and associated shelf-basin fluxes. Deep Sea Res., 76, 35-51.


Wang, M. A. Spall, G. R. Flierl, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 2012: A new mechanism for the generation of quasi-zonal jets in the ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10./1029/2012GL051861.

Spall, M. A., 2012: Influences of precipitation on water mass transformation and deep convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 42, 1684-1700.


Pedlosky, J., R. Iacono, E. Napolitano, M. A. Spall, 2011: The two-layer skirted island. J. Mar. Res,69, 347-382.

Vage, K., R. S. Pickart, M. A. Spall, H. Valdimarsson, S. Jonsson, D. J. Torres, S. Osterhus, T. Eldevik, 2011: Significant role of the North Icelandic Jet in the formation of Denmark Strait overflow water. Nature Geosci., doi:10.1038/NGEO1234.

Spall, M. A., 2011: On the role of eddies and surface forcing in the heat transport and overturning circulation in marginals seas. J. Climate, 24, 4844-4858.

Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, G. W. K. Moore, T. J. Weingartner, R. A. Woodgate, K. Aagaard, K. Shimada, 2011: Upwelling in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Atmospheric forcing and local versus non-local response. Prog. Oceanogr., 88, 78-100.


Hristova, H., H. Dijkstra, M. A. Spall, 2010: Onset of time-dependence in a double-gyre circulation: Barotropic basin modes versus classical baroclinic modes. J. Mar. Res., 68,215-236

Spall, M. A., 2010: Dynamics of downwelling in an eddy-resolving convective basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40,2341-2347

Spall, M. A., 2010: Non-local topographic influences on deep convection: An idealized model for the Nordic Seas. Ocean Model., 32, 72-85, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.10.009


Deshayes, J., F. Straneo, M. A. Spall, 2009: Mechanisms of variability in a convective basinJ. Mar. Res., 31, 273-303.

Durland, T. S., J. Pedlosky, M. A. Spall, 2009: Response to a steady poleward outflow, part I: The linear quasigeostrophic problemJ. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1541-1550.

Durland, T. S., M. A. Spall, J. Pedlosky, 2009: Response to a steady poleward outflow, part II: Oscillations and eddies J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39,1551-1573.


Spall, M. A., 2008: Buoyancy-forced downwelling in boundary currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2704-2721.

Spall, M. A., 2008: Low-frequency interaction between horizontal and overturning gyres in the ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18614, doi:10.1029/2008GL035206.

Iovino, D, F. Straneo, M. A. Spall, 2008: On the effect of a sill on dense water formation in a marginal sea. J. Mar. Res., 66, 325-345.

Pratt, L. J., and M. A. Spall, 2008: Circulation and exchange in choked marginal seas.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2639-2661

Hristova, H, J. Pedlosky, and M. A. Spall, 2008: Radiating instability of a meridional boundary current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2294-2307

Spall, M. A., R. S. Pickart, P. S. Fratantoni, A. J. Plueddemann, 2008: Western Arctic shelfbreak eddies: formation and transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1644-1668

Spall, M. A., R. S. J. Pedlosky, 2008: Lateral coupling in baroclinically unstable flows. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1267-1277.

Small, R. J., S. P. deSzoeke, S. P. Xie, L. O'Neil, H. Seo, Q. Song, P. Cornillon, M. Spall, S. Minobe, 2008: Air-sea interaction over ocean fronts and eddies.  Dyn. Atmos. Ocean, 43, 274-319.


Spall, M. A. 2007. Circulation and water mass transformation in a model of the Chukchi Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 112, C05025,doi:10.1029/2005JC002264

Spall, M. A. , 2007. Midlatitude wind stress--sea surface temperature coupling in the vicinity of oceanic fronts. J. Climate , 20, 3785-3801.

Spall, M. A.,  2007. Effect of sea surface temperature--wind stress coupling on baroclinic instability in the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37, 1092-1097.

Pickart, R. S. and M. A. Spall, 2007. Impact of Labrador Sea convection on the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37, 2207-2227.


No publications


Pedlosky, J. and M. A. Spall, 2005. Boundary intensification of vertical velocity in a beta-plane basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 2487-2500.

Spall, M. A., 2005. Buoyancy-forced circulations in shallow marginal seas. J. Mar. Res. 63, 729-752.

Spall, M. A., J. Pedlosky, 2005. Reflection and Transmission of Equatorial Rossby Waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 35, 363-373.


Spall, M. A., 2004. Boundary currents and water mass transformation in marginal seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1197-1213

Katsman, C. A., M. A. Spall, R. S. Pickart, 2004. Boundary current eddies and their role in the restratification of the Labrador Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34, 1967-1983 .


Weller, R. A., P. W. Furey, M. A. Spall, and R. E. Davis, 2003. The large-scale context for oceanic subduction in the Northeast Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., 51, 665-69.

Spall, Michael A., 2003. Islands in zonal flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2689-2701.

Pickart, R. S., M. A. Spall, M. H. Ribergaard, G. W. K. Moore, and R. F. Milliff, 2003. Deep convection in the Irminger Sea forced by the Greenland tip jet. Nature, 424,152-156.

Pratt, L. J., and M. A. Spall, 2003. A porous-medium theory for barotropic flow through ridges and archipelagos. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2702-2718.

Spall, Michael A., R. S. Pickart, 2003. Wind-driven recirculations and exchange in the Labrador and Irminger Seas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33,1829-1845.

Spall, Michael A., 2003. On the thermohaline circulation in flat bottom marginal seas. J.  Mar. Res,, 61, 1-25.


Spall, Michael A., 2002. Wind- and buoyancy-forced upper ocean circulation in two-strait marginal seas with application to the Japan / East Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C1), 6.1-6.12.


Spall, Michael A., R. S. Pickart, 2001. Where does dense water sink? A subpolar gyre example. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(3), 810-825.

Spall, Michael, A., 2001. Large-scale circulations forced by localized mixing over sloping bottom, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(8), 2369-2384.

Blackmon, M., and 25 co-authors, including M. Spall, 2001. The Community climate system model. Bull.  Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82(11), 2357-2376.


Spall, Michael A., 2000. Buoyancy-forced circulations around islands and ridges. J. Mar. Res., 58(6), 957-982.

Spall, Michael, A., Robert Weller and Peter Furey, 2000. Modeling the three-dimensional upper ocean heat budget and subduction rate during the Subduction Experiment.  J. Geophys. Res., 105(C11), 26,151-26,166.

Spall, Michael A., 2000. Generation of strong mesoscale eddies by weak ocean gyres. J. Mar. Res., 58, 97-116.

Joyce, Terrence M., Clara Deser and Michael A. Spall, 2000. On the relation between decadal variability of Subtropical Mode Water and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13(14), 2550-2569.


Pedlosky, Joseph, and Michael Spall. 1999. Rossby normal modes in basins with barriers. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29(9), 2332-2349.

Spall, Michael A., 1999. A simple model of the large scale circulation of Mediterranean water and Labrador Sea water. Deep Sea Res. II, 46, 181-204.


Spall, Michael A., and David C. Chapman, 1998. On the efficiency of baroclinic eddy heat transport across narrow fronts. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28(11), 2275-2287.

Spall, Michael A., and James F. Price, 1998. Mesoscale variability in Denmark Strait: the PV outflow hypothesis. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28(8), 1598-1623.


Pedlosky, Joseph, Lawrence J. Pratt, Michael A. Spall and Karl R. Helfrich, 1997. Circulation around islands and ridges. J. Mar. Res. 55(6), 1199-1251.

Spall, M. A., 1997. Baroclinic jets in confluent flow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27(6), 1054-1071.

Visbeck, Martin, John Marshall, Tom Haine and Mike A. Spall, 1997. Specification of eddy transfer coefficients in coarse-resolution ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27(3), 381-402.

Pickart, Robert S., Michael A. Spall and J. R. N. Lazier, 1997. Mid-depth ventilation in the western boundary current system of the subpolar gyre. Deep-Sea Research, 44(6), 1025-1054.


Spall, Michael A., 1996. Dynamics of the Gulf Stream/Deep Western Boundary Current Crossover. Part II: Low-frequency internal oscillations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26(10), 2169-2182.

Spall, Michael A., 1996. Dynamics of the Gulf Stream/Deep Western Boundary Current crossover. Part I: Entrainment and recirculation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26(10), 2152-2168.


Williams, Richard G., Michael A. Spall and John C. Marshall, 1995. Does Stommel's mixed-layer 'demon' work? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25(12), 3089-3102.

Spall, Michael A., 1995. Frontogenesis, subduction, and cross-front exchange at upper ocean fronts. J. Geophys. Res., 100(C2), 2543-2558


Spall, Michael A., 1994. Wave-induced abyssal recirculations. J. Mar. Res., 52, 1051-1080.

Polvani, L. M., J. C. McWilliams, M. A. Spall and R. Ford, 1994. The coherent structures of shallow-water turbulence: Deformation-radius effects, cyclone/anticyclone asymmetry and gravity-wave generation. Chaos, 4(2), 177-186.

Spall, Michael A., 1994. A mechanism for low frequency variability and salt flux in the Mediterranean salt tongue. J. Geophys. Res., 99(C5), 10,121-10,130.


Spall, Michael A., Philip L. Richardson and James Price, 1993. Advection and eddy mixing in the Mediterranean salt tongue. J. Mar. Res., 51(4), 797-818.

Spall, Michael A., 1993. Variability of sea surface salinity in stochastically forced systems. Climate Dyn., 8, 151-160.


Spall, Michael A., and James C. McWilliams, 1992. Rotational and gravitational influences on the degree of balance in the shallow water equations. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 64, 1-29.

Spall, Michael A., 1992. Rossby wave radiation in the Cape Verde Frontal Zone. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22(7), 796-807.

Spall, Michael A., 1992. Cooling spirals and recirculation in the subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22(5), 564-571.


Spall, Michael A., and William R. Holland, 1991. A nested primitive equation model for oceanic applications. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21(2), 205-220.

Spall, Michael A., 1991. A diagnostic study of the wind and buoyancy driven North Atlantic Circulation. J. Geophys. Res., Oceans, 96(C10), 18,509-18,518.


Spall, Michael A., and Allan R. Robinson, 1990. Regional primitive equation studies of the Gulf Stream meander and ring formation region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20(7), 985-1016.

Spall, Michael A., 1990. Circulation in the Canary Basin: a model/data analysis J. Geophys. Res., 95(C6), 9611-9628.


Spall, Michael A., and Allan R. Robinson, 1989. A new hybrid coordinate open ocean primitive equation model. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 31, 241-269.

Spall, Michael A., 1989. Regional primitive equation modeling and analysis of the POLYMODE data set. Dyn. Atmospheres and Oceans, 14(1-2), 125-174.

Robinson, Allan R., Michael A. Spall, Leonard J. Walstad and Wayne G. Leslie, 1989. Data assimilation and dynamical interpolation in GULFCAST experiments. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 13, 301-316.


Robinson, Allan R., Michael A. Spall and Nadia Pinardi, 1988. Gulf Stream simulation and the dynamics of ring and meander processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18(12), 1811-1853.