Skip to content



Armitage, T.W.K., Manucharyan, G.E., Petty, A.A., Thompson, A.F., Kwok, R., Enhanced eddy activity in the Beaufort Gyre in response to sea ice loss. Nat Commun 11, 761 (2020).

Ballard, Megan S. and Badiey, Mohsen and Sagers, Jason D. and Colosi, John A. and Turgut, Altan and Pecknold, Sean and Lin, Ying-Tsong and Proshutinsky, Andrey and Krishfield, Richard and Worcester, Peter F. and Dzieciuch, Matthew A. (2020). Temporal and spatial dependence of a yearlong record of sound propagation from the Canada Basin to the Chukchi Shelf. 148. (3). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148. 1663 to 1680. Published. 0001-4966.

DeGrandpre, M., Evans, W., Timmermans, M.‐L., Krishfield, R., Williams, B., and Steele, M., 2020. Changes in the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle with diminishing ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL088051.

Dukhovskoy, D; Igor Yashayaev; Eric Chassignet; Paul Myers; Gennady Platov; Andrey Proshutinsky (2020), Time scales of the Greenland Freshwater Anomaly in the Subpolar North Atlantic, Journal of climate, under revision

Proshutinsky, A., Krishfield, R., & Timmermans, M.‐L. (2020). Introduction to special collection on arctic ocean modeling and observational synthesis (FAMOS) 2: Beaufort Gyre phenomenon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2019JC015400.

Proshutinsky A.Yu., Toole J.M., Krishfield R.A., Anderson D.M., Ashjian C.J., Baggeroer A.B., Freitag L.E., Pickart R.S., and von der Heydt K., 2020, Journal of Oceanological Research, 2020, Vol. 48, No. 3, P. 164–198, DOI: 10.29006/1564-2291.JOR-2020.48(3).10

Timmermans, M.-L., and J. Marshall, 2020. Understanding Arctic Ocean circulation: A review of ocean dynamics in a changing climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, e2018JC014378.

Zhang, Y., Yamamoto‐Kawai, M., & Williams, W. J. (2020). Two decades of ocean acidification in the surface waters of the Beaufort Gyre, Arctic Ocean: Effects of sea ice melt and retreat from 1997–2016. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e60119. https://cdiac/10.1029/2019GL086421



Babb, D. G., Landy, J. C., Barber, D. G., & Galley, R. J. ( 2019). Winter sea ice export from the Beaufort Sea as a preconditioning mechanism for enhanced summer melt: A case study of 2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Bebieva, Y. & Timmermans M. L. (2019). Double‐diffusive layering in the Canada Basin: An explanation of along‐layer temperature and salinity gradients. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 723– 735.

Brown, N. J., Nilsson, J., & Pemberton, P. (2019). Arctic Ocean freshwater dynamics: transient response to increasing river runoff and precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Cole, S. T., & Stadler, J. (2019). Deepening of the winter mixed layer in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean over 2006‐2017. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Dainard, P. G., Guéguen, C., Yamamoto‐Kawai, M., Williams, W. J., & Hutchings, J. K. ( 2019). Interannual variability in the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the Canada Basin polar mixed waters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 5258– 5269.

DeGrandpre, M. D., Lai, C.‐Z., Timmermans, M.‐L., Krishfield, R. A., Proshutinsky, A., & Torres, D. (2019). Inorganic carbon and pCO2 variability during ice formation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Canada Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Doddridge E. W., Meneghello, G., Marshall, J., Scott, J., & Lique, C. (2019). A Three‐way balance in the Beaufort Gyre: The Ice‐Ocean Governor, wind stress, and eddy diffusivity. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 3107– 3124.

Dukhovskoy, D. S., Yashayaev, I., Proshutinsky, A., Bamber, J. L., Bashmachnikov, I. L., Chassignet, E. P., et al (2019). Role of Greenland Freshwater Anomaly in the Recent Freshening of the Subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Heorton, H. D. B. S., Tsamados, M., Cole, S. T., Ferreira, A. M. G., Berbellini, A., Fox,, M., & Armitage, T. W. K. ( 2019). Retrieving sea ice drag coefficients and turning angles from in situ and satellite observations using an inverse modeling framework. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 6388– 6413.

Hu X. & Myers, P. (2019). Pacific Water Pathway in the Arctic Ocean Revealed by Online Passive Tracer in NEMO Simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, accepted.

Ji, B. Y., Sandwith, Z. O., Williams, W. J., Diaconescu, O., Ji, R., Li, Y., et al. (2019). Variations in rates of biological production in the Beaufort Gyre as the Arctic changes: Rates from 2011 to 2016. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Kelly, S. J., Proshutinsky, A., Popova, E. K., Aksenov, Y. K., & Yool, A. ( 2019). On the origin of water masses in the Beaufort Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 4696– 4709.

Kozlov, I. E., Artamonova, A. V., Manucharyan, G. E., & Kubryakov, A. A. ( 2019). Eddies in the Western Arctic Ocean from spaceborne SAR observations over open ocean and marginal ice zones. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Lambert, E., Nummelin, A., Pemberton, P., & Ilıcak, M. (2019). Tracing the imprint of river runoff variability on Arctic water mass transformation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 302– 319.

Lewis, B. J., & Hutchings, J. K. (2019). Leads and associated sea ice drift in the Beaufort Sea in winter. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 3411– 3427.

Luneva, M., Ivanov, I., Tusov, F., Harle, J., Holt, J. (2019). Dense water cascading in the Arctic Ocean: a modelling perspective.  Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, accepted.

Mahoney, A. R., Hutchings, J. K., Eicken, H., & Haas, C. (2019). Changes in the thickness and circulation of multiyear ice in the Beaufort Gyre determined from pseudo‐Lagrangian methods from 2003–2015. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 5618– 5633.

Manucharyan, G. E., & Isachsen, P. E. (2019). Critical role of continental slopes in halocline and eddy dynamics of the Ekman‐driven Beaufort Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 2679– 2696.

Muilwijk, M., Ilicak, M., Cornish, S. B., Danilov, S., Gelderloos, R., Gerdes, R., et al. ( 2019). Arctic Ocean response to Greenland Sea wind anomalies in a suite of model simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 6286– 6322.

Proshutinsky, A., Krishfield, R., Toole, J. M., Timmermans, M.‐L., Williams, W., Zimmermann, S., et al. (2019). Analysis of the Beaufort Gyre freshwater content in 2003–2018. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 96589689.

Regan, H. C., Lique, C., & Armitage, T. W. K. (2019). The Beaufort Gyre extent, shape, and location between 2003 and 2014 from satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 844– 862.

Shibley, N. C., & Timmermans, M.‐L. (2019). The formation of double‐diffusive layers in a weakly turbulent environment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 1445– 1458.

Watanabe, E., Jin, M., Hayashida, H., Zhang, J., & Steiner, N. ( 2019). Multi‐model intercomparison of the pan‐Arctic ice‐algal productivity on seasonal, interannual, and decadal timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124.

Yaremchuk, M., Townsend, T., Panteleev, G., Hebert, D., & Allard, R. ( 2019). Advancing short‐term forecasts of ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 807– 820.

Zhong, W., Steele, M., Zhang, J., & Cole, S. T. ( 2019). Circulation of Pacific Winter Water in the western Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 863– 881.

Zhong, W., Zhang, J., Steele, M., Zhao, J., & Wang, T. (2019). Episodic extrema of surface stress energy input to the western Arctic Ocean contributed to step changes of freshwater content in the Beaufort Gyre. Geophysical Research Letters, 46.


Chanona, M., Waterman, S., & Gratton, Y. (2018). Variability of internal wave‐driven mixing and stratification in Canadian Arctic shelf and shelf‐slope waters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 9178– 9195.

Dewey S., J. Morison, R. Kwok, S.e Dickinson, D. Morison and R.r Andersen (2018). Arctic Ice‐Ocean Coupling and Gyre Equilibration Observed With Remote Sensing, Geophysical Research Letters45, 3, (1499-1508).

Dosser, H. V. and M.-L. Timmermans (2018). Inferring Circulation and Lateral Eddy Fluxes in the Arctic Ocean’s Deep Canada Basin Using an Inverse Method, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10.1175/JPO-D-17-0190.1, 48, 2, (245-260).

Grivault, N., Hu, X., & Myers, P. G. (2018). Impact of the surface stress on the volume and freshwater transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from a high‐resolution numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 9038– 9060.

Hirano, D., Fukamachi, Y., Ohshima, K. I., Watanabe, E., Mahoney, A. R., Eicken, H., et al. (2018). Winter water formation in coastal polynyas of the eastern Chukchi shelf: Pacific and Atlantic influences. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 5688– 5705.

Kelly, S., Popova, E., Aksenov, Y., Marsh, R., & Yool, A. (2018). Lagrangian modeling of Arctic Ocean circulation pathways: Impact of advection on spread of pollutants. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 2882‐ 2902.

Liang, X., & Losch, M. (2018). On the effects of increased vertical mixing on the Arctic Ocean and sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 9266– 9282.

Meneghello G. , J. Marshall, M.-L. Timmermans and J. Scott (2018). Observations of seasonal upwelling and downwelling in the Beaufort Sea mediated by sea ice. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48, 795–805. doi:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0188.1

Meneghello, G., J. Marshall, S. Cole, and M.-L. Timmermans (2018). Observational inferences of lateral eddy diffusivity in the halocine of the Beaufort Gyre. Geophys. Res. Lett.44, 12 331–12 338,

Mensa, J. A., M.-L. Timmermans, I. E. Kozlov, W. J. Williams, and T. M. Ozgokmen (2018). Surface drifter observations from the Arctic Ocean’s Beaufort Sea: Evidence for submesoscale dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 2635–2645. 2017JC013728.

Muilwijk, M., Smedsrud, L. H., Ilicak, M., & Drange, H. (2018). Atlantic Water heat transport variability in the 20th century Arctic Ocean from a global ocean model and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 8159– 8179.

Shu, Q., Qiao, F., Song, Z., Zhao, J., & Li, X. (2018). Projected freshening of the Arctic Ocean in the 21st century. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 9232– 9244.

Spall, M., Pickart, R., Li, M., Itoh, M., Lin, P., Kikuchi, T., & Qi, Y. ( 2018). Transport of Pacific water into the Canada Basin and the formation of the Chukchi Slope Current. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 7453–7471.

Qiang, W.,  C. Wekerle, S. Danilov, N. Koldunov, D. Sidorenko, D. Sein, B. Rabe and T.  Jung (2018). Arctic Sea Ice Decline Significantly Contributed to the Unprecedented Liquid Freshwater Accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Arctic Ocean, Geophysical Research Letters45, 10, (4956-4964).

Zhao, B., & Timmermans, M.‐L. (2018). Topographic Rossby waves in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 6521– 6530.

Zhao, M., Timmermans, M.‐L., Krishfield, R., & Manucharyan, G. (2018). Partitioning of kinetic energy in the Arctic Ocean's Beaufort Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123, 4806– 4819.

Zhong W., M. Steele, J. Zhang and J. Zhao (2018). Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents in Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans123, 1, (149-165).


Dewey, S. R., J. H. Morison and J. Zhang (2017). An Edge-Referenced Surface Fresh Layer in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10.1175/JPO-D-16-0158.1, 47, 5, (1125-1144).

Marshall, J., Scott, J., and Proshutinsky, A. (2017). Climate Response Functions' for the Arctic Ocean: a proposed coordinated modeling experiment, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-316.

Meneghello G. , J. Marshall, S.T. Cole, and M.-L. Timmermans (2017). Observational inferences of lateral eddy diffusivity in the halocline of the Beaufort Gyre. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44. doi:10.1002/2017GL075126.

Yamamoto, M., Nam, S.-I., Polyak, L., Kobayashi, D., Suzuki, K., Irino, T., and Shimada, K. (2017). Holocene dynamics in the Bering Strait inflow to the Arctic and the Beaufort Gyre circulation based on sedimentary records from the Chukchi Sea, Clim. Past, 13, 1111-1127,


Aksenov, Y., et al. (2016), Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experimentsJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans1212759, doi:10.1002/2015JC011299.

Armitage, T. W. K., Bacon, S., Ridout, A. L., Thomas, S. F., Aksenov, Y. and Wingham, D. J. (2016), Arctic sea surface height variability and change from satellite radar altimetry and GRACE, 2003-2014. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/2015JC011579.

Bebieva, Y., and M.-L. Timmermans (2016), An examination of double-diffusive processes in a mesoscale eddy in the Arctic OceanJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121457475, doi:10.1002/2015JC011105.

Bigdeli, A., B. Loose, and S. T. Cole (2016). Numerical investigation of the Arctic ice-ocean boundary layer; implications for air-sea gas fluxes. Ocean Sci. Discuss., doi:10:5194/os-2016-4, in review.

Brown, K. A.F. McLaughlinP. D. TortellM. Yamamoto-Kawai, and R. Francois (2016), Sources of dissolved inorganic carbon to the Canada Basin halocline: A multitracer studyJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121, doi:10.1002/2015JC011535.

Davis, Peter E. D., Camille Lique, Helen L. Johnson, John D. Guthrie. (2016) Competing Effects of Elevated Vertical Mixing and Increased Freshwater Input on the Stratification and Sea Ice Cover in a Changing Arctic Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 46:5, 1531-1553.

Howell, S. E. L.M. BradyC. Derksen, and R. E. J. Kelly (2016), Recent changes in sea ice area flux through the Beaufort Sea during the summerJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12126592672, doi:10.1002/2015JC011464.

Islam, F., M. DeGrandpre, C. Beatty, R. Krishfield, and J. Toole (2016). Gas exchange of CO2 and )2 in partially ice-covered regions of the Arctic Ocean investigated using in situ sensors, IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 35, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/35/1/012018.

Ma, B.M. Steele, and C. M. Lee (2017), Ekman circulation in the Arctic Ocean: Beyond the Beaufort GyreJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12233583374, doi:10.1002/2016JC012624.

Manucharyan, G. E., and M. A. Spall (2016), Wind-driven freshwater buildup and release in the Beaufort Gyre constrained by mesoscale eddiesGeophys. Res. Lett.43273282, doi:10.1002/2015GL065957.

Martin, T.M. TsamadosD. Schroeder, and D. L. Feltham (2016), The impact of variable sea ice roughness on changes in Arctic Ocean surface stress: A model studyJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12119311952, doi:10.1002/2015JC011186.

Mizobata, K.E. Watanabe, and N. Kimura (2016), Wintertime variability of the Beaufort gyre in the Arctic Ocean derived from CryoSat-2/SIRAL observationsJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12116851699, doi:10.1002/2015JC011218.

Nummelin, A.M. IlicakC. Li, and L. H. Smedsrud (2016), Consequences of future increased Arctic runoff on Arctic Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice coverJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121617637, doi:10.1002/2015JC011156.

Pemberton, P., and J. Nilsson (2016), The response of the central Arctic Ocean stratification to freshwater perturbationsJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121792817, doi:10.1002/2015JC011003.

Petty, A. A.J. K. HutchingsJ. A. Richter-Menge, and M. A. Tschudi (2016), Sea ice circulation around the Beaufort Gyre: The changing role of wind forcing and the sea ice stateJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121, doi:10.1002/2015JC010903.

Steiner, N. S.T. SouC. DealJ. M. JacksonM. JinE. PopovaW. Williams, and A. Yool (2016), The future of the subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum in the Canada Basin—A model intercomparisonJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans121387409, doi:10.1002/2015JC011232.

Yang, J.A. Proshutinsky, and X. Lin (2016), Dynamics of an idealized Beaufort Gyre: 1. The effect of a small beta and lack of western boundariesJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12112491261, doi:10.1002/2015JC011296.

Zhang, J., and Coauthors, 2016: The Beaufort Gyre intensification and stabilization: A model-observation synthesis. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans121, 7933–7952, doi:


Alkire, M. B.J. Morison, and R. Andersen (2015), Variability in the meteoric water, sea-ice melt, and Pacific water contributions to the central Arctic Ocean, 2000–2014J. Geophys. Res. Oceans12015731598, doi:10.1002/2014JC010023.

Hwang, J.M. KimS. J. ManganiniC. P. McIntyreN. HaghipourJ.J. ParkR. A. KrishfieldR. W. MacdonaldF. A. McLaughlin, and T. I. Eglinton (2015), Temporal and spatial variability of particle transport in the deep Arctic Canada BasinJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12027842799, doi:10.1002/2014JC010643.

Jackson, J. M.H. MellingJ. V. LukovichD. Fissel, and D. G. Barber (2015), Formation of winter water on the Canadian Beaufort shelf: New insight from observations during 2009–2011J. Geophys. Res. Oceans12040904107, doi:10.1002/2015JC010812.

Lawrence, J.E. PopovaA. Yool, and M. Srokosz (2015), On the vertical phytoplankton response to an ice-free Arctic OceanJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12085718582, doi:10.1002/2015JC011180.

Proshutinsky A., D.  Dukhovskoy, M-L. Timmermans, R. Krishfield, J. Bamber (2015): Arctic circulation regimes, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 373, 20140160; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0160.

Roy, F.M. ChevallierG. C. SmithF. DupontG. GarricJ.-F. LemieuxY. Lu, and F. Davidson (2015), Arctic sea ice and freshwater sensitivity to the treatment of the atmosphere-ice-ocean surface layerJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12043924417, doi:10.1002/2014JC010677.

Stroh, J. N.G. PanteleevS. KirillovM. Makhotin, and N. Shakhova (2015), Sea-surface temperature and salinity product comparison against external in situ data in the Arctic OceanJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12072237236, doi:10.1002/2015JC011005.

Timmermans, M.-L. (2015), The impact of stored solar heat on Arctic sea ice growthGeophys. Res. Lett.4263996406, doi:10.1002/2015GL064541.<

Zhao, M., and M.-L. Timmermans (2015), Vertical scales and dynamics of eddies in the Arctic Ocean's Canada BasinJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans12081958209, doi:10.1002/2015JC011251.


Davis P. D.E, Camille Lique, and Helen L. Johnson, 2014: On the Link between Arctic Sea Ice Decline and the Freshwater Content of the Beaufort Gyre: Insights from a Simple Process Model. J. Climate27, 8170–8184. doi:

Dosser, H. V., Luc Rainville, and John M. Toole, 2014: Near-Inertial Internal Wave Field in the Canada Basin from Ice-Tethered Profilers. J. Phys. Oceanogr.44, 413–426. doi:

Hunt, B. P. V.R. John NelsonB. WilliamsF. A. McLaughlinK. YoungK. A. BrownS. Vagle, and E. C. Carmack (2014), Zooplankton community structure and dynamics in the Arctic Canada Basin during a period of intense environmental change (2004–2009)J. Geophys. Res. Oceans11925182538, doi:10.1002/2013JC009156.

Krishfield, R. A.A. ProshutinskyK. TateyamaW. J. WilliamsE. C. CarmackF. A. McLaughlin, and M.-L. Timmermans (2014), Deterioration of perennial sea ice in the Beaufort Gyre from 2003 to 2012 and its impact on the oceanic freshwater cycleJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans11912711305, doi:10.1002/2013JC008999.

Koldunov, N. V., et al. (2014), Multimodel simulations of Arctic Ocean sea surface height variability in the period 1970–2009J. Geophys. Res. Oceans11989368954, doi:10.1002/2014JC010170.

Lique, C., J.D. Guthrie, M. Steel, A. Proshutinsky, J.H. Morison and R. Krishfield (2013):Diffusive vertical heat flux in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean inferred from moored instruments, Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 119, 496-508, doi:10.1002/2013JC009346.

Martin, T., M. Steele, and J. Zhang (2014). Seasonality and long-term trend of Arctic Ocean surface stress in a model, J. Geophys. Res., Oceans, 119, 1723-1738, doi:10.1002/2013JC009425,<>.

Rabe, B.M. KarcherF. KaukerU. SchauerJ. M. TooleR. A. KrishfieldS. PisarevT. Kikuchi, and J. Su (2014), Arctic Ocean basin liquid freshwater storage trend 1992–2012Geophys. Res. Lett.41961968, doi:10.1002/2013GL058121.

Timmermans, M.-L.A. ProshutinskyE. GolubevaJ. M. JacksonR. KrishfieldM. McCallG. PlatovJ. TooleW. WilliamsT. Kikuchi, and S. Nishino (2014), Mechanisms of Pacific Summer Water variability in the Arctic's Central Canada BasinJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans11975237548, doi:10.1002/2014JC010273.

Wang, J.K. MizobataX. BaiH. HuM. JinY. YuM. IkedaW. JohnsonW. Perie, and A. Fujisaki (2014), A modeling study of coastal circulation and landfast ice in the nearshore Beaufort and Chukchi seas using CIOMJ. Geophys. Res. Oceans11932853312, doi:10.1002/2013JC009258.

Wu Q., , Jing Zhang, Xiangdong Zhang, and Wei Tao, 2014: Interannual Variability and Long-Term Changes of Atmospheric Circulation over the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. J. Climate27, 4871–4889. doi:

Zhong W. and Jinping Zhao, 2014: Deepening of the Atlantic Water Core in the Canada Basin in 2003–11. J. Phys. Oceanogr.44, 2353–2369. doi:

Giesbrecht, K. E., et al., 2014. Measurements of dissovled inorganic carbon system and associated bigeochemical parameters in the Candadian Arctic, 1974-2009, Earth System Sci. Data, 6(1), 91-104.

Zhou, S.-Q., L. Qu, Y.-Z. Lu, and X-L. Song, 2014. The instability of diffusive convection and its implication for the thermohaline stair cases in the deep Arctic Ocean. Ocean Science10, 127-134, doi: 10.5194/is-10-127-2014


Aksenov, Y., R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, An T. Nguyen, G. Platov, A. Proshutinsky, E. Watanabe, B. De Cuevas, F. Kauker, M. Wadley, E. Golubeva, R. Woodgate (2013): Arctic Pathways of Pacific Water: AOMIP Model Experiments, Journal of Geophysical Research (revised).

Guthrie, J.D., J. H. Morison and I. Fer (2013): Revisiting Internal Waves and Mixing in the Arctic ocean, J. Geophys. .Res. Oceans, 118, 2966-3977, doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20294.

Miles G. McPhee, 2013: Intensification of Geostrophic Currents in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean. J. Climate26, 3130–3138. doi:

Proschutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, and J.M. Toole (2013): Arctic Ocean freshwater balainec, mcGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology, pp. 31-34.

Spall, M.A., (2013). On the Ciculation of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 2352-2371, doi:

Stewart K. and T. Haine (2013). Wind-driven Arctic freshwater anomalies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 6196-6201, doi10.1002/2013GL058247.

Bourgain, P., J. C. Gascard, J. Shi and J. Zhao, (2013). Large-scale temperature and salinity changes in the upper Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean at a time of drastic Arctic Oscillation inversion, Ocean Sci., 9, 447-460, doi:10.5194/os-9-447-2013.

Zhou, S.-Q. and Y.-Z. Lu, 2013. Characerization of double diffusive convection steps and heat budget in the deep Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118, 1-15, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009141.


Carmack, E. C., W. J. Williams, S. L. Zimmermann, and F. A. McLaughlin (2012), The Arctic Ocean warms from below, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07604, doi:10.1029/2012GL050890.

Comiso J.C. , 2012: Large Decadal Decline of the Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover. J. Climate25, 1176–1193. doi:

Jackson, J. M., W. J. Williams, and E. C. Carmack (2012), Winter sea-ice melt in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L03603, doi:10.1029/2011GL050219.

Johnson, M., et al. (2012), Evaluation of Arctic sea ice thickness simulated by Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project models, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D13, doi:10.1029/2011JC007257.

Long Z., W. Perrie, C. L. Tang, E. Dunlap, and J. Wang, 2012: Simulated Interannual Variations of Freshwater Content and Sea Surface Height in the Beaufort Sea*. J. Climate25, 1079–1095. doi:

Hutchings, J. K. and I. G. Rigor, 2012. Role of ice dynamics in anomalous ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea during 2006 and 2007J. Geophys. Res.117, C00E04, doi:10.1029/2011JC007182.


Jackson, J.M., S.E. Allen, F.A. McLaughlin, R.A. Woodgate, and E.C. Carmack (2011), Changes to the nearsurface waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean from 1993-2009: A basin in transition, J. Geophys. Res., 116. C10008, doi:10.1029/2011JC007069.

Guéguen,C., F. A. McLaughlin, E. C. Carmack, M. Itoh, H. Narita, and S. Nishino, The Nature of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in the southern Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea, Deep Sea Res., Part II, 81-84, 102-113 doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.004.

Polyakov, I.V., V.A. Alexeev, I. M. Ashik, S. Bacon, A. Beszczynska-Möller, E. C. Carmack, I. A. Dmitrenko, L. Forti er, J.-C. Gascard, E. Hansen, J. Hölemann, V. V. Ivanov,T. Kikuchi, S. Kirillov, Y.-D. Lenn, F. A. McLaughlin, J. Piechura, I. Repina, L. A.Timokhov, W. Walczowski , and R. Woodgate, Fate of Early 2000s Arctic Warm Water Pulse, Bulletin of the American Meterological Society, May 2011.

Itoh, Motoyo, Jun Inoue, Sarah Zimmermann, Takashi Kikuchi, Jenny Hutchings, Fiona McLaughlin, and Eddy Carmack, Acceleration of sea ice melting due to transmitted heat through ponded ice area in the Arctic Ocean: results of in situ observation from ice breakers in 2006 and 2007, Annals of Glaciology, 52, 249-260, 2011.

Johnson, M., A. Proshutinsky, B. de Cuevas, N. Diansky, R. Lindsay, S. Hakkinen, W. Maslowski, A. T. Nguyen, Z. Zhang (2011), Evaluation of sea ice thickness reproduction in AOMIP models J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D13, doi:10.1029/2011JC007257.

PDFMcLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, R.A. Krishfield, C. Guay, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, J.M. Jackson, and B. Williams. 2011. The rapid response of the Canada Basin to climate forcing: From bellwether to alarm bells. Oceanography 24(3):146–159,

Proshutinsky A., Y. Aksenov, D. Holland, J. Clement Kinney, R. Gerdes, G. Holloway, A. Jahn, M. Johnson, E. Golubeva, E. Popova, Mike Steele, and E. Watanabe (2011), Arctic Ocean change studies: synthesizing model results and observations, Oceanography, 24 (3): 102-113, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.61.

Proshutinsky A., M-L. Timmermans, I. Ashik, A.Beszczynska-Moeller, E. Carmack, I. Frolov, R. Krishfield, F. McLaughlin, J. Morison, I. Polyakov, K. Shimada, V. Sokolov, M. Steele, J. Toole and R. Woodgate, 2010: Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. (submitted)

Serreze M. C. and Andrew P. Barrett, 2011: Characteristics of the Beaufort Sea High. J. Climate24, 159–182. doi:

Smith, John N., Fiona A. McLaughlin, William M. Smethie Jr., S. Bradley Moran and Kate Hagstrom,129I, 137Cs and CFC-11 Tracer Transit Time Distributions in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C04024, doi:10.1029/2010JC006471, 2011.

Timmermans, M.-L., A. Proshutinsky, R. Krishfield, D. K. Perovich, J. A. Richter-Menge, T. P. Stanton, and J. M. Toole (2011), Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: An apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation, J. Geophys. Res.116, C00D03, doi:10.1029/2011JC006975.

Yamamoto‐Kawai, M., F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack (2011), Effects of ocean acidification, warming and melting of sea ice on aragonite saturation of the Canada Basin surface water, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L03601, doi:10.1029/2010GL045501.


Carmack, Eddy C., Fiona A. McLaughlin, Svein Vagle, Humfrey Melling and William J. Williams (2010): Structures and Property Distributions in the Three Oceans Surrounding Canada in 2007: A Basis for a Long-Term Ocean Climate Monitoring Strategy, ATMOSPHERE-OCEAN 48 (4) 2010, 211–224 doi:10.3137/OC324.2010

Condron A. , Peter Winsor, Chris Hill, and Dimitris Menemenlis, 2009: Simulated Response of the Arctic Freshwater Budget to Extreme NAO Wind Forcing. J. Climate22, 2422–2437. doi:

Fiona A. McLaughlin and Eddy C. Carmack (2010): Deepening of the nutricline and chlorophyll maximum in the Canada Basin interior, 2003–2009, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L24602, doi:10.1029/2010GL045459, 2010

Jackson J. M., S. E. Allen, E. C. Carmack, and F. A. McLaughlin (2010): Suspended particles in the Canada Basin from optical and bottle data, 2003–2008, Ocean Sci., 6, 799–813, doi:10.5194/os-6-799-2010

Jackson, J. M., E. C. Carmack, F. A. McLaughlin, S. E. Allen, and R. G. Ingram (2010), Identification, characterization, and change of the near‐surface temperature maximum in the Canada Basin, 1993–2008, JGR, VOL. 115, C05021, doi:10.1029/2009JC005265, 2010

Proshutinsky A., M-L. Timmermans, I. Ashik, A.Beszczynska-Moeller, E. Carmack, I. Frolov, R. Krishfield, F. McLaughlin, J. Morison, I. Polyakov, K. Shimada, V. Sokolov, M. Steele, J. Toole and R. Woodgate, 2010: Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2009"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91(7), S109-S112.

Timmermans, M.-L., L. Rainville, L. Thomas and A. Proshutinsky, 2010. Moored observations of bottom-intensified motions in the deep Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean. Journal of Marine Research, 68 (1), 625-64

Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo, Eddy C. Carmack, Fiona A. McLaughlin and Kelly K. Falkner (2010): Oxygen isotope ratio, barium and salinity in waters around the North American coast from the Pacific to the Atlantic: Implications for freshwater sources to the Arctic throughflow, Journal of Marine Research, 68, 97–117, 2010

2009 - JGR Special Issue

Journal of Geophysical Research Special Issue: Beaufort Gyre Climate System Exploration Studies, Vol. 114, 2009.
Guest Editor(s): A. Proshutinsky
Description: The Beaufort Gyre exploration project has been focused on observational and modeling research and supported by the Beaufort Gyre Observational Program funded by the National Science Foundation, Canada and Japan since 2003. After a 5-year study the major findings of this program are reported in this section. Among section themes are investigations of the major elements of the Beaufort Gyre climate system: atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, biological and geochemical studies.

PDFAsplin, M. G., J. V. Lukovich, and D. G. Barber, Atmospheric forcing of the Beaufort Sea ice gyre: Surface pressure climatology and sea ice motion J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A06, doi:10.1029/2008JC005127 9 April 2009.

PDFGuay, C. K. H., F. McLaughlin, and M. Yamamoto-Kawai, Differentiating fluvial components of upper Canada Basin waters on the basis of measurements of dissolved barium combined with other physical and chemical tracers J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2008JC005099.

PDFLukovich, J. V., M. G. Asplin, and D. G. Barber, 2009. Atmospheric forcing of the Beaufort Sea ice gyre: Surface-stratosphere coupling J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A09, doi:10.1029/2008JC004849 17 January 2009.

PDFMcLaughlin, F., E. Carmack, W. J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, K. Shimada, and M. Itoh, Joint effects of boundary currents and thermohaline intrusions on the warming of Atlantic water in the Canada Basin: 1993-2007 J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A12, doi:10.1029/2008JC005001.

PDFNishino, S., K. Shimada, M. Itoh, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, and S. Chiba, East–west differences in water mass, nutrient, and chlorophyll a distributions in the sea ice reduction region of the western Arctic Ocean J. Geophys. Res., 113, C00A01, doi:10.1029/2007JC004666 1 November 2008.

PDFOkkonen, S. R., C. J. Ashjian, R. G. Campbell, W. Maslowski, J. L. Clement-Kinney, and R. Potter, Intrusion of warm Bering/Chukchi waters onto the shelf in the western Beaufort Sea J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A11, doi:10.1029/2008JC004870.

PDFOverland, J. E., Meteorology of the Beaufort Sea J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A07, doi:10.1029/2008JC004861 6 May 2009.

PDFPerovich, D. K., T. C. Grenfell, B. Light, B. C. Elder, J. Harbeck, C. Polashenski, W. B. Tucker, and C. Stelmach, Transpolar observations of the morphological properties of Arctic sea ice J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A04, doi:10.1029/2008JC004892 30 January 2009.

PDFPickart, R. S., G.W.K Moore, D. J. Torres, P. S. Fratantoni, R. A. Goldsmith, and J. Yang (2009), Uwpelling on the continental slope of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Storms, ice, and oceanographic response, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A13, doi:10.1029/2008JC005009.

PDFProshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, and D. Barber, Preface to special section on Beaufort Gyre Climate System Exploration Studies: Documenting key parameters to understand environmental variability J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A08, doi:10.1029/2008JC005162 23 May 2009.

PDFProshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, W. J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, M. Itoh, and K. Shimada, Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A10, doi:10.1029/2008JC005104.

PDFTimmermans, M.-L., J. Toole, R. Krishfield, and P. Winsor, Ice-Tethered Profiler observations of the double-diffusive staircase in the Canada Basin thermocline J. Geophys. Res., 113, C00A02, doi:10.1029/2008JC004829 17 December 2008.

PDFYamamoto-Kawai, M., F. A. McLaughlin, E. C. Carmack, S. Nishino, K. Shimada, and N. Kurita, Surface freshening of the Canada Basin, 2003–2007: River runoff versus sea ice meltwater J. Geophys. Res., 114, C00A05, doi:10.1029/2008JC005000 8 April 2009.

PDFLi, W. K. W., McLaughlin, F. A., Lovejoy, C., Carmack, E. (2009), Smallest Algae Thrive As the Arctic Ocean Freshens, Science, 326, pp. 539.

PDFMcPhee, M. G., A. Proshutinsky, J. H. Morison, M. Steele, and M. B. Alkire (2009), Rapid change in freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10602, doi:10.1029/2009GL037525.

PDFYamamoto-Kawai, M., McLaughlin, F., Carmark, E., Nishino, S., and Shimada, K. (2009), Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt, Science, 326, pp. 1098-1100.


Carmack, E., F. McLaughlin, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, M. Itoh, K. Shimada, R. Krishfield, and A. Proshutinsky, Freshwater storage in the Northern Ocean and the special role of the Beaufort Gyre, In: Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes: Defining the Role of the Northern Seas in Climate, Eds. R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, P. Rhines, Springer, 2008, pp. 145-170.

PDFMcGeehan, T.P., 2008: Investigation of 2-Dimensional Under-ice Roughness in the Beaufort Gyre and Implications for Mixed Layer Ocean Turbulence. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 73p.

PDFTimmermans, M.L., J. Toole, A. Proshutinsky, R. Krishfield, and A. Plueddemann, 2008: Eddies in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, Observed from Ice-Tethered Profilers. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 133–145.


PDFItoh, M; Carmack, E; Shimada, K; McLaughlin, F; Nishino, S; Zimmermann, S, (2007): Formation and spreading of Eurasian source oxygen-rich halocline water into the Canadian Basin in the Arctic Ocean", Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 34, 10.1029/2007GL02948

Richter-Menge, J. Overland, A. Proshutinsky, V. Romanovsky, J.C. Gascard, M. Karcher, J. Maslanik, D. Perovich, A. Shiklomanov and D. Walker, (2007) Arctic, In: Arguez, A., ed., 2007: State of the Climate in 2006. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88, S1-S135.

PDFTimmermans, ML; Melling, H; Rainville, L, (2007): Dynamics in the deep Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, inferred by thermistor chain time series", J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 37, 10.1175/JPO3032.


PDFDukhovskoy, D., M. Johnson, and A. Proshutinsky (2006), Arctic decadal variability from an idealized atmosphere-ice-ocean model: 1. Model description, calibration, and validation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06028, doi:10.1029/2004JC002821.

PDFDukhovskoy, D., M. Johnson, and A. Proshutinsky (2006), Arctic decadal variability from an idealized atmosphere-ice-ocean model: 2. Simulation of decadal oscillations, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06029, doi:10.1029/2004JC002820.

Lyons, B., K. Alverson, D. Barber, J. Bellingham, T. Callagan, L. Cooper, M. Edwards, S. Gearheard, M. McCammon, J. Morison, S. Palo, A. Proshutinsky, L. Reiersen, V. Romanovski, P. Schlosser, J. Stroeve, G. Tweedie, J. Walsh, Toward an integrated Arctic Observing Network, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006, 115p.

Richter-Menge, J., J. Overland, A. Proshutinsky, V. Romanovsky, et al. (2006) State of the Arctic Report, NOAA OAR Special Report, NOAA/OAR/PMEL, Seattle, WA, 36pp

Richter-Menge, J., J. Overland, A. Proshutinsky, V. Romanovsky, J.C. Gascard, M. Karcher, J. Maslanik, D. Perovich, A. Shiklomanov and D. Walker, (2006) Arctic, In: State of the Climate in 2005, Ed. K.A. Shen, Special supplement to the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol 87, No. 6, June 2006, pages: S46-S52, 102 p.

PDFShimada, K., T. Kamoshida, M. Itoh, S. Nishino, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, S. Zimmermann, and A. Proshutinsky (2006), Pacific Ocean inflow: Influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025624.

PDFTimmermans, ML; Garrett, C, (2006): Evolution of the deep water in the Canadian basin in the Arctic Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 36, 866-874.

Yang J. , 2006: The Seasonal Variability of the Arctic Ocean Ekman Transport and Its Role in the Mixed Layer Heat and Salt Fluxes. J. Climate19, 5366–5387. doi:


Alexeev, V.A., Langen, P.L., Bates, J. R., (2005): Polar amplification of surface warming on an aquaplanet in "ghost forcing" experiments without sea ice feedbacks", Climate Dynamics, vol. 24, 10.1007/s00382-005-0018.

Coakley, B., D. Chayes, A. Proshutinsky, T. Weingartner (2005), Objectives for a Cabled Observatory in Alaska's Beaufort Sea, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(18), 177, 10.1029/2005EO180005.

>Kemp, J., Newhall, K., Ostrom, W., Krishfield, R., and A. Proshutinsky, 2005. The Beaufort Gyre Observing System 2004: Mooring Recovery and Deployment Operations in Pack Ice; WHOI Technical Report WHOI-2005-5.

PDFKrishfield, R. A., and D. K. Perovich (2005), Spatial and temporal variability of oceanic heat flux to the Arctic ice pack, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C07021, doi:10.1029/2004JC002293.

Proshutinsky, A., J. Yang, R. Krishfield, R. Gerdes, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, C. Koeberle, S. Hakkinen, W. Hibler, D. Holland, M. Maqueda, G. Holloway, E. Hunke, W. Maslowski, M. Steele, and J. Zhang (2005), Arctic Ocean Study: Synthesis of Model Results and Observations, EOS, 86 (40), 368-371.

PDFShimada K., M. Itoh, S. Nishino, F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky (2005), Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03605, doi:10.1029/2004GL021358


Häkkinen S., A. Proshutinsky (2004), Freshwater content variability in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C03051, doi:10.1029/2003JC001940.

Ostrom, W., Kemp, J., Krishfield, R., and A. Proshutinsky, 2004. Beaufort Gyre Freshwater Experiment: Deployment Operations and Technology in 2003; WHOI Technical Report WHOI-2004-1.

PDFShimada, K., F. McLaughlin, E. Carmack, A. Proshutinsky, S. Nishino, and M. Itoh (2004), Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of Atlantic Water in the Canada Basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020860.

PDFYang, JY; Comiso, J; Walsh, D; Krishfield, R; Honjo, S, (2004): Storm-driven mixing and potential impact on the Arctic Ocean", J. Geophys. Res., vol. 109, 10.1029/2001JC00124.


Proshutinsky, A, "Modeling of ocean and sea ice circulation", (2003). Book, Published Editor(s): L. P. Bobylev, K. Ya. Kondratyev and O.M. Johannessen Collection: Arctic Environment variability in the context of Global change Bibliography: Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, p. 181-202

Proshutinsky, A., "Circulation of water and ice", (2003). Book, Published Editor(s): L. P. Bobylev, K. Ya. Kondratyev and O.M. Johannessen Collection: Arctic Environment variability in the context of Global change Bibliography: Springer, Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK, p. 172-180.

Proshutinsky, A., Bourke, R. H., and F. A. McLaughlin, 2002. The role of the Beaufort Gyre in Arctic climate variability: Seasonal to decadal climate scales. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 29, No. 23.