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Export Pathways from the Subpolar North Atlantic

Co-PIs: Amy Bower (WHOI) and Susan Lozier (Duke)


The Export Pathways Experiment was a joint effort between WHOI and Duke University. The purpose of the program was to study the pathways and variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current from the Labrador Sea into the subpolar North Atlantic. Our objectives were to: 1. Obtain an improved description of the pathways of LSW out of the subpolar region using acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats deployed in the DWBC in the Labrador Sea. 2. Characterize the intermittency/temporal variability in these pathways, and investigate its cause, including NAC position, interannual variations in LSW production, and seasonal/interannual variations in wind forcing. 3. Use historical and synoptic hydrographic data to determine low-frequency variations in the penetration of recently-ventilated water masses equatorward along the western boundary.


This project was generously funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.


Lozier, M. S., S. F. Gary, and A. S. Bower, 2013.  Simulated pathways of the overflow waters in the North Atlantic:  subpolar to subtropical export.  Deep-Sea Research II, 85, 147-153.

Bower, A. S., R. M. Hendry, D. E. Amrhein, and J. M. Lilly, 2013. Direct observations of formation and propagation of subpolar eddies into the Subtropical North Atlantic.  Deep-Sea Research II, 85, 15-41.

Bower, A., S. Lozier, and S. Gary, 2011.  Export of Labrador Sea water from the subpolar North Atlantic:  a Lagrangian perspectiveDeep-Sea Research II, 58(17–18), 1798-1818.

Bower, A. S., M. S. Lozier, S. F. Gary, and C. W. Böning, 2009.  Interior pathways of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning CirculationNature, 459(14).

Technical and Cruise Reports

Furey, H. H., and A. S. Bower, 2009.  Export Pathways from the Subpolar North Atlantic:  DLD2 RAFOS Float Data Report July 2003--November 2008.  WHOI Technical Report WHOI-2009-06, 166 pp.

Bower, A., and S. Lozier, 2003.  Export Pathways from the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean:  R/V Oceanus Cruise OC 395-2, July 9--23, 2003.


Bower, A. S., S. F. Gary, M. S. Lozier, and C. W. Böning.  Spreading Pathways of Labrador Sea Water from the Subpolar North Atlantic: A Lagrangian Perspective.  Ocean Sciences Meeting, February 2010.