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Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX)

Co-PIs: Amy Bower, Dave Frantantoni (WHOI), Bill Johns (RSMAS) and Hartmut Peters (RSMAS)

The Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX) was a joint effort between the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and WHOI. The purpose of the program was to conduct measurements of the outflow of high salinity water from the Red Sea and its mixing with ambient waters in the Gulf of Aden. The main objectives of REDSOX were: 1) to describe the pathways and downstream evolution of the descending outflow plumes of Red Sea Water in the western Gulf of Aden, 2) to quantify the process that controls the final depth of the equilibrated Red Sea Outflow Water, and 3) to identify the transport processes and mechanisms that advect Red Sea Outflow Water and its properties through the Gulf of Aden and into the Indian Ocean.


This project was generously funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.



Bower, A. S., and H. H. Furey, 2012.  Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their impact on the spreading of Red Sea Outflow WaterProg. Oceanogr., 96(1), 14-39.

Fratantoni, D. M., A. S. Bower, W. E. Johns, and H. Peters, 2006.  Somali Current rings in the eastern Gulf of AdenJo. Geophys. Res., 111, C09039.

Bower, A. S., W. E. Johns, D. M. Fratantoni, and H. Peters, 2005.  Equilibration and circulation of Red Sea Outflow Water in the western Gulf of Aden.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 1963–1985.

Peters, H., W. E. Johns, A. S. Bower, and D. M. Fratantoni, 2005.  Mixing and entrainment in the Red Sea Outflow Plume:  I. Plume StructureJ. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 569–583.

Bower, A. S., D. M. Fratantoni, W. E. Johns, and H. Peters, 2002. Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea Water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(21).


Bower, A.S., W.E. Johns, H. Peters, and D.M. Fratantoni, 2003. Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX): Descent and initial spreading of Red Sea water in the northwestern Indian Ocean.  Presented at EGS, March 2003.

Technical and Cruise Reports

Furey, H., A. Bower, and D. Fratantoni, 2005. Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX):  DLD2 RAFOS Float Data Report, February 2001–March 2003.  WHOI Technical Report 2005-01.  Woods Hole, MA, 141 pp.

Cruise Report: Red Sea Outflow Experiment - REDSOX 2.  R/V Maurice Ewing cruise EW-110, August 21 to September 12, 2001.

Johns, W., H. Peters, R. Zantopp, A. Bower, and D. Fratantoni, 2001. CTD/O2 Measurements Collected Aboard the R/V KNORR, February–March 2001: REDSOX-1. University of Miami RSMAS Technical Report 2001-01, June 2001, University of Miami, FL.

Cruise Report: Red Sea Outflow Experiment - REDSOX 1. R/V Knorr cruises KN-162-10 and KN-162-11, February 5 to March 15, 2001.


For a copy of the float data collected as part of this project, please contact Dr. Amy Bower at