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Bellona, J., H. Li, J. Roberts, A. Bower, and L. Smith, 2024. Iterative design of auditory displays involving data sonifications and authentic ocean data. International Conference on Auditory Display, submitted.

Ramsey, A., M.C. Curran, and A Bower, 2024. Real-World Temperature Data from the Gulf of Mexico: Seasonality and Effect of the Loop Current with an Accessible Hands-On Activity. The Journal of Marine Education, submitted.

Furey, H., A. Bower, A. Ramsey, A. Houk, and T. Meunier, 2024. Variability of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water across the Reykjanes Ridge: Two years of moored observations in the Bight Fracture Zone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 129 (6), e2023JC020463,

Smith, L.M., A. Bower, J. Roberts, J. Bellona, and H. Li, 2024. Expanding access to ocean science through inclusively designed data sonificationsOceanography, 36(4),


Bower, A., J. Vazquez-Cuervo, and E. Comstock, 2023. Navigating a sea of obstacles: Ocean science for people with disabilitiesOceanography, 36(4),

Meunier, T., A. Bower, P. Perez-Brunius, A. Mahadevan, and F.G. Ziehl, 2023. The energy decay of warm-core eddies in the Gulf of Mexico. Geophysical Research Letters.

Furey, H., N. Foukal, A. Anderson, and A. Bower, 2023. Investigation of the source of Iceland Basin freshening: virtual particle tracking with satellite-derived geostrophic surface velocities. Remote Sensing,

Koman, G., A. Bower, P. Holiday, H. Furey, Y. Fu, and T. Bilo, 2023. Decreasing transport of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the subpolar Atlantic.  Nature Geosciences, submitted.

Koman, G., M.C. Curran, A.L. Ramsey, A.S. Bower, and H.H. Furey, 2023. Listening to the ocean: using data sonification to teach students about the role of ocean circulation in climate change. Science Activities,

Fu, Y., M.S. Lozier, T.C. Bilo, A.S. Bower, S.A. Cunningham, F. Cyr, M.F. de Jong, B. deYoung, L. Drysdale, N. Fraser, N. Fried, H.H. Furey, G. Han, P. Handmann, N.P. Holliday, J. Holte, M.E. Inall, W.E. Johns, S. Jones, J. Karstensen, F. Li, A. Pacini, R.S. Pickart, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, and I. Yashayaev, 2023. Seasonality of the meridional overturning circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. Communications Earth & Environment,

Zou, S., A. Bower, S. Lozier, and H. Furey, 2023. Deep ocean circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic observed by acoustically-tracked floats. Progress in Oceanography, (2023): 102975.


Lozier, M. Susan, A.S. Bower, H.H. Furey, K.L. Drouin, X. Xu, and S. Zou, 2022. Overflow water pathways in the North Atlantic.  Progress in Oceanography, V208,

Meunier, T., P. Perez Brunius, and A. Bower, 2022. Reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of loop current rings from satellite altimetry and in situ data using the Gravest Empirical Modes Methods. Remote Sensing, 14(17), 4174.


Meunier, T., P. Perez Brunius, J. Rodriguez Outerelo, P. Garcia Carrilo, A. Ronquillo, H. Furey, A. Ramsey, and A. Bower, 2021. A deep water dispersion experiment in the Gulf of Mexico.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 126, e2021JC017375. doi: 10.1029/2021.JC017375.

Curran, C., A. Ramsey, and A. Bower, 2021. Learning about ocean currents one track at a time. Science Activities.  doi: 10.1080/00368121.2021.1885333.

Zou, S., Bower, A.S., Furey, H., Pickart, R.S., Houpert, L. and Holliday, N.P., 2021. Observed Deep Cyclonic Eddies around Southern Greenland. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 51(10), pp.3235-3252.

Meunier, T., E. Pallas Sanz, C. de Marez, J. Gabriel, C. Perez, M. Benreiro, A. Ruiz Angulo and A. Bower, 2021.   The dynamical structure of a warm core ring as inferred from glider  observations and along-track altimetry. Remote Sensing, 13, 2456

Li, F., M.S. Lozier, S. Bacon, A.S. Bower, S.A. Cunningham, M.F. de Jong, B. DeYoung, N. Fraser, N. Fried, G. Han, N.P. Holliday, J. Holte, L. Houpert, M.E. Inall, W.E. Johns, S. Jones, C. Johnson, J. Karstensen, I.A. LeBras, P. Llherminier, X. Lin, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, A. Pacini, T. Petit, R.S. Pickart, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, M. Visbeck, I. Yashayaev, and C. Zhou, 2021. Subpolar North Atlantic western boundary density anomalies and the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Nature Communications, 12, 3002, doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-23350-2.


Gonçalves Neto, A., Palter, J. B., Bower, A., Furey, H., & Xu, X., 2020. Labrador Sea Water transport across the Charlie‐Gibbs Fracture Zone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans125(8), e2020JC016068.

Saberi, A., T.W.N. Haine, R. Gelderloos, M.F. de Jong, H. Furey, and A. Bower, 2020. Lagrangian perspective on the origins of Denmark Strait Overflow.  Journal of Physical Oceanography,

Zou, S., A. Bower, H. Furey, S. Lozier, and X. Xu, 2020.  Redrawing the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water Pathways in the North Atlantic. Nature Communications, 11(1), pp.1-8.

Morey, S.L., Gopalakrishnan, G., Pallás Sanz, E., De Souza, J.M.A.C., Donohue, K., Pérez-Brunius, P., Dukhovskoy, D., Chassignet, E., Cornuelle, B., Bower, A. and Furey, H., 2020. Assessment of Numerical Simulations of Deep Circulation and Variability in the Gulf of Mexico Using Recent Observations. Journal of Physical Oceanography, (2020).


Szuts, Z.B., A.S. Bower, K.A. Donohue, J.B. Girton, J.M. Hummon, K. Katsumata, R. Lumpkin, P.B. Ortner, H.E. Phillips, T. Rossby, L.K. Shay, and R.E. Todd, 2019. The scientific and societal uses of global measurements of subsurface velocity. Frontiers in Marine Science, Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, p.358.

Bower, A., Lozier, S., Biastoch, A., Drouin, K., Foukal, N., Furey, H., Lankhorst, M., Rühs, S. and Zou, S., 2019. Lagrangian views of the pathways of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(8), pp.5313-5335.

Hamilton, P., A. Bower, H. Furey, R. Leben, and P. Perez-Brunius, 2019. The Loop Current: Observations of deep eddies and topographic waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography, doi.10.1175/JPO-D-18-0213.1.

Menezes, V.V., T. Farrar, A. Bower, 2019. Evaporative implications of dry-air outbreaks over the norther Red Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research--Atmospheres. 124,


Lozier, M.S., F. Li, S. Bacon, F. Bahr, A. Bower, S. Cunningham, F. de Jong, L. de Steur, B. DeYoung, J. Fischer, S. Gary, B. Greenan, N.P. Holliday, A. Houk, L. Hupert, M. Inall, W. Johns, H. Johnson, J. Karsetensen, G. Koman, I. LeBras, X. Lin, N. Mcackay, D. Marshall, H. Mercier, M. Oltmanns, R.S. Pickart, A. Ramsey, D. Rayner, F. Straneo, V. Tierry, D.J. Torres, R. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, I. Yashayaev, J. Zhao, 2018. A sea change in our view of overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic. Science, 363(6426), 516-521, doi:10.1126/science.aau6592.

Ramsey, A., H. Furey, and A. Bower, 2018. Deep floats reveal ocean circulation patterns. Eos, 99,

Xu, X., A. Bower, H. Furey, and E. Chassignet, 2018. Variability of the Iceland-Scotland overflow water transport through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: Results from an eddying simulation and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 123, 5808-5823,

Furey, H., Bower, A., Perez-Brunius, P., Hamilton, P. and Leben, R., 2018. Deep eddies in the Gulf of Mexico observed with floats. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48(11), pp.2703-2719.

de Jong, M.F., H. Søiland, A. Bower, and H. Furey, 2017. The subsurface circulation of the Iceland Sea observed with RAFOS floatsDeep-Sea Research I, 141, 1-10,

Zhao, J., A. Bower, J. Yang, and X. Lin, 2018.  Meridional heat transport variability induced by mesoscale processes in the subpolar North Atlantic.  Nature Communications, 9(1), 1124, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03134-x.

Menezes, V., J. T. Farrar, and A.S. Bower, 2017. Westward mountain-gap wind jets of the Northern Red Sea as seen by QuikSCATRemote Sensing Environ.,209, 677-699,

Hamilton, P., Leben, R., Bower, A., Furey, H. and Pérez-Brunius, P., 2018. Hydrography of the Gulf of Mexico using autonomous floats. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 48(4), pp.773-794.

Pérez Brunius, P, H. Furey, A. Bower, P. Hamilton, J. Candela, P. Garcia-Carrilo, and R. Leben, 2018. Dominant circulation patterns of the deep Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Physical Oceanography,

Zhao, J., Bower, A., Yang, J., Lin, X., & Zhou, C. (2018). Structure and formation of anticyclonic eddies in the Iceland Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(8), 5341-5359.


Zou, S., M. S. Lozier, W. Zenk, A. Bower, and W. Johns, 2017.  Observed and modeled pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic.  Progress in  Oceanography, 159, 211-222,

Lozier, M. S., S. Bacon, A.S. Bower, S.A. Cunningham, M.F. de Jong, L. de Steur, B. DeYoung, J. Fischer, S.F. Gary, B.J.W. Greenan, P. Heimback, N.P. Holliday, L. Houpert, M.E. Inall, W.E. Johns, H.L. Johnson, J. Karstensen, F. Li, X. Lin, N. Mackay, D.P. Marshall, H. Mercier, P.G. Myers, R.S. Pickart, H.R. Pillar, F. Straneo, V. Thierry, R.A. Weller, R.G. Williams, C. Wilson, J. Yang, J. Zhao, and J.D. Zika, 2017.  Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program: A new international ocean observing system.  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:

Curran, M.C., A. Bower, and H. Furey, 2017. Detangling spaghetti: Tracking deep ocean currents in the Gulf of Mexico.  Science Activities, doi:10.1080/00368121.2017. 1322031

Bower, A., and H. Furey, 2017.  Iceland-Scotland overflow water transport variability through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and the impact of the North Atlantic CurrentJournal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 122(9), 6989-7012, doi: 10.1002/2017JC012698.


de Jong, M.F., A.S. Bower, and H.H. Furey, 2016.  Seasonal and inter-annual variations of Irminger Ring formation and boundary-interior heat exchange in FLAME.  Journal of Physical Oceanography,46(6), 1717-1734, doi:


Bower, A.S., and J.T. Farrar, 2015.  Air-sea interaction and horizontal circulation in the Red Sea In:  The Red Sea:  The Formation, Morphology, and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin, N. Rasul and I. Stuart (eds); Springer Publishing, Germany.

Rykova, T., F. Straneo, and A.S. Bower, 2015. Seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland Current system in the Labrador Sea in 1993-2008.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 120(2), 1318-1332, doi: 10.1002/2014JC010386

Zhai, P., L. Pratt, and A.S. Bower, 2015.  On the crossover of boundary currents in an idealized model of the Red SeaJournal of Physical Oceanography, 45(5), 1410-1425, doi:

Etter, R.J., and A.S. Bower, 2015.  Dispersal and population connectivity in the deep North Atlantic estimated from physical transport processesDeep-Sea Research I, 104, 159-172,

Zhai, P., A. Bower, W. Smethie, and L. Pratt, 2015.  Formation and spreading of Red Sea outflow water in the Red Sea.  Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 120, 6542–6563, doi:10.1002/2015JC010751.

Papadopoulos, V.P., S.S. Sofianos, D.E. Raitsos, A. Bower, P. Zhan, M. Qurban, Y. Abualnaja, H. Kontoyiannis, A. Pavlidou, N. Zarokanellos, and I. Hoteit, 2015. Factors governing the deep ventilation of the Red Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 120, 7493-7505, doi: 10.1002/2015JC010996.


Churchill, J. H., A.S. Bower, D.C. McCorkle, and Y. Abualnaja, 2014.  The transport of nutrient-rich Indian Ocean water through the Red Sea and into coral reef ecosystems.  Journal of Marine Research, 72(3), 165-181.

de Jong, M. F., A. S. Bower and H. H. Furey, 2014.  Two years of observations of warm core anticyclones in the Labrador Sea and their seasonal cycle in heat and salt stratification.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44, 427-444, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-070.1.

Yao, F., I. Hoteit, L. J. Pratt, A. S. Bower, P. Zhai, A. Khöl and G. Gopalakrishnan, 2014. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1.  Model validation and summer recirculationJournal of Geophysical Research, 119, 2238-2262, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009331.

Yao, F., I. Hoteit, L. J. Pratt, A. S. Bower, A. Köhl, G. Gopalakrishnan and D. Rivas, 2014. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2.  Winter circulation.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 119, 2263-2289, doi:10.1002/2013JC009331.

Chen, C. L. Ruixiang, L. Pratt, R. Limeburner, R. Beardsley, A.S. Bower, H. Jiang, Y. Abualnaja, X. Liu, Q. Xu, H. Lin, J. Lan, and T.-W. Kim. 2014.  Process modeling studies of physical mechanisms of the formation of an anticyclonic eddy in the central Red Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans, 119, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009351.

Green, R., A. Bower, and A. Lugo-Fernández. 2014. First autonomous bio-optical profiling float in the Gulf of Mexico reveals dynamic biogeochemistry in deep waters.  PLOS ONE 9(7):e101658, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101658.


Lozier, M. S., S.F. Gary, and A. S. Bower, 2013.  Simulated pathways of the overflow waters in the North Atlantic:  subpolar to subtropical export.  Deep-Sea Research II, 85, 147-153, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.037.

Papadopoulos, V. P., Y.  Abualnaja, S. A. Josey, A. Bower, D. E. Raitsos, H. Kontoyiannis, and I. Hoteit, 2013. Atmospheric forcing of the winter air-sea heat fluxes over the northern Red Sea. Journal of Climate, 26(5), 1685-1701, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00267.

Zhai, P., and A. Bower, 2013.  The response of the Red Sea to a strong wind jet near the Tokar Gap in summer.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 118(1), 421-434, doi:10.1029/2012JC008444.

Imawaki, S., A. S. Bower, L. Beal, and B. Qiu, 2013.  Western Boundary Currents In:  Ocean Circulation and Climate – A 21st Century Perspective, 2nd Edition, G. Siedler, S.M. Griffies, W.J. Gould and J. Church (eds.); Academic Press.

Furey, H. H., M. F. de Jong, J. R. Valdes and A. S. Bower, 2013.  Eddy seeding in the Labrador Sea:  A Submerged Autonomous Launch Platform application.  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30, 2611-2629, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00069.1.

Bower, A. S., R. M. Hendry, D. E. Amrhein, and J. M. Lilly, 2013.  Direct observations of formation and propagation of subpolar eddies into the subtropical North Atlantic.  Deep-Sea Research II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.029.


Swift, S. A., A. S. Bower, and R. W. Schmitt, 2012.  Vertical, horizontal, and temporal changes in temperature in the Atlantis II and Discovery hot brine pools, Red Sea.  Deep-Sea Research I, 64, 118–128, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.02.006.


Bower, A. S., and H. H. Furey, 2011.  Mesoscale eddies in the Gulf of Aden and their impact on the spreading of Red Sea Outflow Water.  Progress in Oceanography, 96, 14–39, doi:10.1016/jpocean. 2011.09.003.

Bower, A., S. Lozier, and S. Gary, 2011.  Export of Labrador sea water from the subpolar North Atlantic:  A Lagrangian perspective.  Deep-Sea Research II, 58(17–18), 1798–1818, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2. 2010.10.060.


No publications


Bower, A. S., M. S. Lozier, S. F. Gary, and C. W. Böning, 2009.  Interior pathways of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning CirculationNature, 459(14), doi:10.1038/nature07979.


Bower, A. S., and W.-J. von Appen, 2008.  Interannual variability in the pathways of the North Atlantic Current over the mid-Atlantic ridge and the impact of topography.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38(1), 104–120,


No publications


Fratantoni, D. M., A. S. Bower, W. E. Johns, and H. Peters, 2006.  Somali Current rings in the eastern Gulf of Aden.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, C09039, doi:10.1029/2005JC003338.


Bower, A. S., W. E. Johns, D. M. Fratantoni, and H. Peters, 2005.  Equilibration and circulation of Red Sea Outflow Water in the western Gulf of Aden.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 1963–1985,

Furey, H. H., and A. S. Bower, 2005.  Synoptic temperature structure of the East China and southeastern Japan/East SeasDeep-Sea Research II, 52, 1421–1442, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2003.07.022.

Peters, H., W. E. Johns, A. S. Bower, and D. M. Fratantoni, 2005.  Mixing and entrainment in the Red Sea Outflow Plume:  I. Plume StructureJournal of Physical Oceanography, 35, 569–583,

Shoosmith, D. R., P. L. Richardson, A. S. Bower, and H. T. Rossby, 2005.  Discrete eddies in the northern North Atlantic as observed by looping RAFOS floats.  Deep-Sea Research II, 52,   627–650, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.12.011.


Bower, A., E. Zettler, and G. Gawarkiewicz, 2004. Science Under Sail: Ocean Science Education Program Combines Traditional Vessels with State-of-the-Art Technology. Oceanography, 17, 4251,


Swift, S. A., and A. S. Bower, 2003. Formation and circulation of dense water in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(C1), 3004, doi:10.1029/ 2002JC001360.


Bower, A. S., D. M. Fratantoni, W. E. Johns, and H. Peters, 2002. Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea Water. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(21), doi:10.1029/2002GL015342.

Bower, A. S., B. Le Cann, T. Rossby, W. Zenk, J. Gould, K. Speer, P. L. Richardson,  M. D. Prater, and H.-M. Zhang, 2002. Directly measured mid-depth circulation in the northeastern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 419, 603–607, doi:10.1038/nature01078.

Bower, A. S., N. Serra, and I. Ambar, 2002. Structure of the Mediterranean Undercurrent and Mediterranean Water spreading around the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(C10), 3161, doi:10.1029/2001JC001007.

Gordon, A. L., C. F. Giulivi, C. M. Lee, H. H. Furey, A. Bower, and L. Talley, 2002. Japan/East Sea intrathermocline eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32(6), 1960–1974,<1960:JESIE>2.0.CO;2


No publications


Bower, A. S., and H. D. Hunt, 2000a. Lagrangian observations of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the North Atlantic Ocean. Part I: Large-scale pathways and spreading rates. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30(5), 764–783,<0764:LOOTDW>2.0.CO;2.

Bower, A. S., and H. D. Hunt, 2000b. Lagrangian observations of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the North Atlantic Ocean. Part II: The Gulf Stream–Deep Western Boundary Current crossover. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30(5), 784–804, doi:<0784: LOOTDW>2.0.CO;2.

Bower, A. S., H. D. Hunt, and J. F. Price, 2000. Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows. Journal of Geophysical Research -Oceans, 105(C3), 6387–6414,  doi: 10.1029/1999JC900297

LaCasce, J. H., and A. Bower, 2000. Relative dispersion in the subsurface North Atlantic. Journal of Marine Research, 58(6), 863–894,

Richardson, P. L., A. S. Bower, and W. Zenk, 2000.  A census of meddies tracked by floats. Progress in Oceanography, 45(2), 209–250, doi: 10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00053-1.


Ambar, I., L. Armi, A. S. Bower, and T. C. Ferreira, 1999. Some aspects of time variability of the Mediterranean Water off south Portugal. Deep-Sea Research I, 46, 1109–1136, doi: 10.1016/S0967-0637(99)00006-0.


No publications


Bower, A. S., L. Armi, and I. Ambar, 1997. Lagrangian observations of meddy formation during A Mediterranean Undercurrent Seeding Experiment. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 2545–2575, doi:<2545: LOOMFD>2.0.CO;2.


Bower, A. S., and N. G. Hogg, 1996. Structure of the Gulf Stream and its recirculations at 55ºW. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(6), 1002–1022,<1002: SOTGSA>2.0.CO;2.

Lozier, M. S., T. J. Bold, and A. S. Bower, 1996. The influence of propagating waves on cross-stream excursions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26(9), 1915–1923, 026<1915:TIOPWO>2.0.CO;2.


Bower, A. S., L. Armi, and I. Ambar, 1995. Direct evidence of meddy formation off the southwest coast of Portugal. Deep-Sea Research I, 42(9), 1621–1630, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(95)00045-8.


Bower, A. S., and M. S. Lozier, 1994. A closer look at particle exchange in the Gulf Stream. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24(6), 1399–1418,<1399: ACLAPE>2.0.CO;2.


No publications


Bower, A. S., and N. G. Hogg, 1992. Evidence for barotropic wave radiation from the Gulf Stream. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22(1), 42–61,<0042: EFBWRF>2.0.CO;2.


Bower, A. S., 1991. A simple kinematic mechanism for mixing fluid parcels across a meandering jet. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 21(1), 173–180,<0173: ASKMFM>2.0.CO;2.


No publications


Bower, A. S., 1989. Potential vorticity balances and horizontal divergence along particle trajectories in Gulf Stream meanders east of Cape Hatteras. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19(11), 1669–1681,<1669: PVBAHD>2.0.CO;2.

Bower, A. S., and T. Rossby, 1989. Evidence of Cross-Frontal Exchange Processes in the Gulf Stream Based on Isopycnal RAFOS Float Data. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19(9), 1177–1190,<1177:EOCFEP>2.0.CO;2.


No publications


No publications


No publications


Bower, A. S., H. T. Rossby, and J. L. Lillibridge, 1985. The Gulf Stream – barrier or blender? Journal of Physical Oceanography, 15(1), 24–32,<0024:TGSOB>2.0.CO;2.

Rossby, H. T., A. S. Bower, and P.-T. Shaw, 1985. Particle pathways in the Gulf Stream. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 66(9), 1106–1110,<1106: PPITGS>2.0.CO;2.